Building n stories tall, with columns on a by a grid, live load L and dead load D.
Approximate total axial load on a typical first-floor interior column=
Ultimate Load * Tributary Area of the Column * no. of stories=
(1.6L + 1.2D ) * a * a * n
image source: http://www.civilengineeringterms.com/steel-structures/stiffener/
– consist of steel/ wood plates fitted between flanges
– help prevent the buckling of flanges
– are used in various locations, including at the crown and points of change in direction.