When it comes to details, I think drawing (tracing) it helps remembering it. If you are bored with all the reading, take a piece of trace and trace away!
“The difference between malleability and ductility is that malleability is the ability to deform easily upon the application of a compressive force, and ductility is doing the same with tensile force.
*Ductility is a mechanical property used to describe the extent to which materials can be deformed plastically without fracture.
In material science, ductility specifically refers to a material’s ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material’s ability to be stretched into a wire.
Malleability, a similar concept, refers to a material’s ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the material’s ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling. Ductility and malleability do not always correlate with each other; for instance, gold is both ductile and malleable, but lead is only malleable. ”
Laitance and efflorescence are really two completely different things, but they are both white, powdery substances, which can be confusing.
In short, laitance is formed when there’s too much water in the concrete mix, while efflorescence is the deposit on masonry surfaces caused by soluble salts in the units or in the mortar.
Laitance can be avoided by controlling the amount of water in the concrete mix. Efflorescence can be prevented, or at least minimized, by selecting materials free of harmful salts and by preventing water from penetrating the masonry. This may be accomplished by the use of solid and tight mortar joints, capped walls, effective flashing, and adequate weather protection of the masonry during construction.
Both laitance and efflorescence can present both cosmetic AND structural problems.
Air-entraining agents is a type of admixture.
Air entrainment is the intentional creation of tiny air bubbles in concrete. The bubbles are introduced into the concrete by the addition to the mix of an air entraining agent, a surfactant (surface-active substance, a type of chemical that includes detergents). The air bubbles are created during mixing of the plastic (flowable, not hardened) concrete, and most of them survive to be part of the hardened concrete. The primary purpose of air entrainment is to increase the durability of the hardened concrete, especially in climates subject to freeze-thaw; the secondary purpose is to increase workability of the concrete while in a plastic state.