Stiffeners (SS)


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– consist of steel/ wood plates fitted between flanges
– help prevent the buckling of flanges
– are used in various locations, including at the crown and points of change in direction.



List of Tests (SS)


Proctor (Compaction) Test: 
Determines the optimal moisture content of soil

Test Boring:
Measures ability of the soil to support structures



Cylinder Test:
Determines the quality, texture and strength of hardened concrete

Slump Test:
Measures workability of concrete

Impact-hammer Test:
Measures strength of concrete

Kelly Ball Test:
Measures workability of concrete